Mythes et héros / Myths and heroes - Historical heroes : how some paved the way for the others - Anglais - Terminale S

Mythes et héros / Myths and heroes - Historical heroes : how some paved the way for the others - Anglais - Terminale S

Ce document de Terminale Scientifique évoque le chapitre "Historical heroes : how some paved the way for the others", du thème "Myths and heroes".
 
Dans un premier temps, vous dcouvrire quelques repères historiques, puis des notions à connaitre sur les grandes figures telles que Lincoln ou encore Obama.

Téléchargez gratuitement cette fiche de révision d'Anglais du Bac S, sur le thème Mythes et héros.

Mythes et héros / Myths and heroes - Historical heroes : how some paved the way for the others - Anglais - Terminale S

Le contenu du document

 

Would there be a black president in Washington DC if history hadn’t provided some major leaders?

2008 had been a major event in the American history with the election of its forty-fourth president. The enthusiasm raised during the campaign but also the issues allowed the American people to look back to their short past and to examine how this could have been made possible. 

Without Lincoln, Gandhi or Martin Luther King not to say Malcolm X would Barak Obama have been elected? Without the Bill of Rights would minorities have had the possibility to reach Washington DC and the White House?

 

I. SOME HISTORICAL LANDMARKS

1. IN THE CONSTITUTION 

The American civil liberties are based on the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments added to the Constitution in 1791 written by James Madison listing specific prohibited powers of the government):

 

→ 13th Amendment : 

(1865) it abolished slavery in the USA. It prohibited involuntary servitude.

- April 14th : Lincoln assassinated.

- May 1865 : the Ku Klux Klan is created in Tennessee

 

→ 14th Amendment : 

(1868) it protected the rights of slaves, and those who are born on the American soil. They are declared citizens.

 

→ 15th Amendment : 

(1870) it allowed the right to vote whatever the color of their skin, the race they belong to or their former state of servitude.

 

2. THROUGH NEW LAWS 

→ (1896) Plessy versus Ferguson :

The Supreme Court held that racial segregation was constitutional.

 

→ (1954) Brown versus the Board of Education 

in Topeka Kansas

The Supreme Court considered segregation (“separate but equal) in public school unsconstitutional.

→ (1964) President Johnson declared and signed the Civil Rights Act making segregation in public facilities an discrimination in employment illegal.

 

→ (1965) On August 10th, Congress passes the voting Right Act: it is easier for Southern blacks to register in order to vote.

 

3. INFRIGEMENT ON CIVIL LIBERTIES IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY

Infrigement-on-civil-liberties-myths-and-heroes-anglais

 

II. ELEMENTS ON MAJOR FIGURES

1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

He was born in 1809 in Kentucky and was murdered in

Washington on April 15th 1865. He was the 16th President 

He was a self-educated man and he became a lawyer in Illinois.

He preserved the Union, abolished slavery through the Emancipation Act and strengthened the

  Federal Government by creating banks, railroads.

 

2. ROSA PARKS

rosa-parks-myths-and-heroes-anglais

 

She is nicknamed “the woman who changed a nation”. Even if she had no intention to become a heroin she was considered as the lady who through her arrest led America to become aware of what Discrimination was like. Other actions like hers inspired the world (in Australia for instance). 

 

She was a black seamstress of 42 years old and she was working in a Department store in Montgomery Alabama. To get back home she had to take a bus and to sit in the black section of the bus. Buses were separated in two section of unequal length (shorter for blacks and situated at the back). She paid her fare (her ticket) and sat down in the white section when a white got on she refused to leave her seat not because she was tired of her work day (many people still believe that was the reason), but because she was tired to undergo racism and being treated a second-class citizen. She was arrested and found guilty of disordererly conduct.

 

 Some blacks met with Rev Martin Luther King at the baptist Church and began a campaign against segregation. Luther King who was 26 became the leader of the protest. 

 

Rosa Parks was fired from her job in 1956 but months later (December 1956) it was the end of the bus boycott which had burst after Park’s arrest.

 

She had to face many threats and died in 2005, she is now resting in peace at the Capitol Rotunda in Washington and became the first woman to be granted that honour.

 

3. MARTIN LUTHER KING

Martin-luther-king-myths-and-heroes-anglais

He was born in Atlanta in 1929 and was killed in 1968 in Memphis.He fought against poverty, discrimination and for peace and civil rights in the world not only in America. 

He was a pacifist, a non-violent leader. 

He was deeply influenced by Ghandi and Lincoln

through his historical and personal route.

 

He received the Nobel peace Prize in 1964 and was awarded after his death the Presidential medal of Freedom. 

 

Martin Luther King’s day was established as a holiday in the country in 1983 first thanks to President Ronal Reagan but it was first observed in 1986. In 1992 President George H.W Bush proclaimed that the holiday would be observed on the third Monday of January. 

 

He was arrested many times; his house was bombed but he never stopped fighting. He was accused of Communism and of Adultery.

 

On August 28th, 1963 he delivered a famous speech in Washington DC on the stairs of the Lincoln Memorial urging people to accept their differences making many allusions to the Bible. 

 

He was opposed to the war in Vietnam considering that America was occupying Vietnam as if it was one of its colonies. 

 

III. HOW OBAMA COULD MAKE IT?

 

How-obama-could-make-it-anglais-myths-and-heroes

 

1. THANKS TO EDUCATION

He went to Columbia University and to Harvard. Thanks to Brown versus Topeka he chose the university that best suited him. His parents were learned so he was confronted to books, culture.

 

2. THANKS TO THE END OF THE JIM CROW LAWS

his parents didn’t belong to the same race: his father was black and his mother was white from Irish origins. Nevertheless, he was rejected by his family. his parents went to the university (his father was a politician and an economist in Kenya and his mother is an anthropologist)

 

3. THANKS TO MARTIN LUTHER KING AND ROSA PARKS

He quoted them in his speeches and like King he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009. 

 

4. THANKS TO THE HERITAGE LEFT BY ACTIVISTS

On racial issues with the speech in Philadelphia.(2008)

In various speeches in which he quotes them.

 

5. HE GATHERED COMMUNITIES 

like latinos or Asians during his first campaign but also women. He uses the art of language and strong images which will strike people’s minds. Martin Luther King did the same during the March on Washington in 1963 gathering blacks and whites, poors and unemployed, women.

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