Les notions à connaitre pour le Bac - Anglais - Terminale S

Les notions à connaitre pour le Bac - Anglais - Terminale S

digiSchool vous propose un document de révision sur les notions à connaitre au bac d'Anglais de Terminale Scientifique.

Vous trouverez des défintions et explications à savoir pour le Baccalauréat sur les différents thèmes étudiés lors de votre année.

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Les notions à connaitre pour le Bac - Anglais - Terminale S

Le contenu du document

 

QUELQUES DEFINITIONS

a- culture shock: difficulties encountered by people who are leaving their country to settle in another one. They meet several phases (honeymoon/rejection/ negotiation/ adjustment/mastery phase)

 

b- America: the promised land / the land of opportunities/ the land of plenty/ the land of Milk and Honey 

 

c- the Taco Belt: the south of the USA which stretches from San Francisco to Florida, the place where most Hispanics migrants settle.

 

d-Spanglish: a mixture/ a mish mash of Spanish and English which refers to the language used by migrants in the USA.

 

e- American Dream: faith/belief shared by many migrants and American people that if you work hard you will succeed. Courage, faith and the wish to reach the top will help you to climb the social ladder.

 

f-The five boroughs of New York City (Bac 2016): The Queens, Brooklyn, Harlem, Manhattan, Staten Island. 

 

g- undocumented migrants: people who have no legal papers (no Identity card or passport or visas) they are also called wetbacks when they are crossing the Rio Grande to reach the USA. Illegal workers.

 

h- Ellis Island: the gateway/the door to America, it was the station where migrants were inspected from 1892 to 1954.

 

i- Pilgrim Fathers: the first migrants who crossed the Atlantic to settle in America. they were religious fundamentalists who wanted to reform Church and society to make them purer. they believe they could have a direct communication with GOD so no church hierarchy is required. In England, protestant dissenters(puritans) were persecuted and as it was impossible to reform a corrupted church and the Kingdom they left England, went to Holland and sailed to America. they were a group of 100. they went from Plymouth (England) to Plymouth (Massachusetts) on September 6th 1620 on the boat called the Mayflower.

 

j- The Founding fathers: the first political men who contributed to the elaboration of the Constitution: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison.

 

k- IMMACT: 1990 Immigration Act: limits the annual number of immigrants to 70,000 (family reunion, employment are the main criteria)

 

l- 3Ds jobs: Dirty, Demeaning, Dangerous

 

m- The Dream Act (Development, Relief, and Education for alien Minors 2001): it provides permanent residency to undocumented alien residents of c=good morals who graduate from US schools and who had arrived in the USA as minors and have been living in the USA five years before the act

 

n- Non-citizen: Any person in America who is not a citizen even with legal immigration documents.

 

o- Lawful permanent resident: green card holders, they are living in the US and have a stable status recognized by the immigration.

 

p-WASP: White Anglo Saxon Protestant 

 

q- a rags to riches story: when you begin very low, with almost no money and you end wealthy and famous.

 

r- immigration Act: 1924, it restricted the Southern and Russian Immigration in the USA.

 

s- The Statue of Liberty: stands on Liberty Island in New York Harbour to welcome visitors and migrants, designed by Bartholdi and Eiffel the statue was a gift of France in 1884.

Its spikes represent the 7 seas, the tablet in her hand commemorates the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776. At the basis there is a poem of Emma Lazarus written in 1883.

 

t- the subprime crisis: it started in 2008 in the USA and developed around the world.  People relied on credits and bought houses but then they lost their jobs and had to sell their houses to a much inferior prices. you are in “negative equity”.

 

u- property bubble: it is created when prices for houses increases because of a high speculation.

 

v- Federal government: A governor for each state, composed of an Attorney General, a vice president, a secretary of State, Secretary of Defense the Pentagon) the Secretary of Treasury.

 

w- the Supreme Court: it makes sure that no law is against the constitution. 9 judges chosen by the president for life.

 

x- the Congress: the senate (100 members) + the House of Representatives (435 members)

 

y- the Bill of Rights: 1789, the first 10 amendments to the constitution.

 

z-The American flag: The Star-spangled banner, the Stars and Stripes, the Old Glory.

 

LET’S HAVE SOME MORE!

 

A1: Exchange: flow, a continuous production (output), a continuous movement or circulation, a tendency which concerns people, products, media etc ...

 

B1: KKK: The Ku Klux Klan: illegal association which became active in 1955, it was a white extremist association fighting against black freedom.

 

C1: Segregation: the separation of a racial or social group from others.

 

D1: desegregation: the act of ending the policy of segregation.

 

E1: Ghettos: poor neighborhoods in the USA.

 

F1: Townships: poor neighborhoods in South Africa.

 

G1: Slums: Poor neighborhoods in India.

 

H1: Brown versus Topeka: 1954: beginning of desegregation in public schools.

 

I1: Health insurance in the USA: it is provided by the private sector except MEDICARE, MEDICAID, the Children’s Health Insurance Program and the Veterans Health Administration. 

 

J1: The founding documents of the USA: The Declaration of Independence (July 4th, 1776) the Constitution (5 September 17th, 1787) the Bill of Rights (1791), the various Amendments to the Constitution, the Federalists papers, the Antifederalists papers.

 

K1: the promised land: a term used to describe the land promised or given by GOD according to the Hebrew bible to the Israelites the descendants of Jacob. The promise was firstly made to Abraham then to his son Isaac and then to Isaac’s son Jacob after the Exodus.

 

L1: The Dust bowl: or the dirty thirties: a time of severe dust storms causing damages in the south western Great plains, people had to leave their homes to find jobs, mostly in California (John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath)

 

M1: The Montgomery Bus Boycott: it lasted one year from December 1955 to December 1956 in the little town of Montgomery, it was a political and social protest against racial segregation in public buses and in public schools

 

N1: Plessy versus Ferguson 1896: racial segregation is declared unconstitutional.

 

O1: Black Muslims movement: a leader: Malcolm X, a black nationalist and separatist movement for whom black problems could only be solved by black people.

 

P1: Plymouth Rock: A rock in Pilgrim Memorial State park where the rock is a symbol of the courage and faith of the men and women who founded the first New England Colony.

 

Q1: Arizona State law: 2010 you can be arrested if you are suspected of being an illegal migrant because of the color of your skin or because you can provide your identity papers.

 

R1: Melting pot: it is a metaphor referring to the way societies mixes different religions, colors, nationalities. Nowadays in New York City it is better to speak of a salad bowl: people live together but don’t really mix with each other in order to keep their traditions alive.

 

S1: impeachment: the power to impeach is given to the Congress against the President of the USA because of their treason, misdemeanors or high crime. The best known impeachment was Richard Nixon’s during the Watergate Affair.

 

T1: The beat generation: after the loss and the alienation caused by the Second World War, many writers decided to rebel against authorities, the Establishment and materialism. They tried to discover the inner self with the use of drugs or with meditation. (Kerouac)

 

U1: Occupy Wall Street Movement: a pacific movement against the greed of bankers that occurred in 2011 in Wall Street, it is characterized by: cyberactivism, civil disobedience, nonviolent protest and strike.

 

V1: Manifest destiny: 1845: the USA was destined to stretch from coast to coast. It allowed to settle on the western coast, to chase the native Indians and to fight against Mexico.

 

W1: Patriot Act 2001: it gives the power to the government to obtain personal information on US citizen.

 

X1- Nationalism: attached to one’s nation; people are defending their community because they are sharing the same language, the same religion. for them only the national interest prevails.

 

Y1: Patriotism: devotion to one’s country, chauvinism, a personal identification with the country, special concern for the wellbeing and safety of the country, will to sacrify for the country’s safety.

 

Z1: the Jim Crow Laws: 1876-1954: laws which make segregation in every public places. Separate but equal. black people can be free, go to school, to the restaurant, take the bus but not mixed with white people.

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